Thursday, September 23, 2010

on system...

System is "anything" (res) existent: being or entity constituted by parts that, articulated between themselves, form a permanent integral whole.

Sistema é qualquer “coisa” (res) existente: ente ou entidade constituída por partes que, articuladas entre si, formam uma totalidade íntegra permanente.

Monday, August 16, 2010

Chaos, Artificial Life and Risk Mathematics

Carlos Pedro Dos Santos Gonçalves 
UNIDE - ISCTE Business School - Lisbon University Institute

Maria Odete Madeira 
Massacritica, Lda.

August 15, 2010


The current work addresses the importance of chaos theory and artificial life as scientific bases for the development of a mathematical research of risk in the systems, within the framework of risk science and risk mathematics. It is argued, in particular, that a combination of chaos theory and artificial life may provide for a theoretical basis for the understanding of systemic situations of risk.

It is presented, within the context of category computation theory, a notion of morphic incompressibility and it is addressed how statistical laws emerge in chaotic dynamics, which becomes morphically compressible at the statistical level, while being morphically incompressible at the individual orbits' level. The issue of the systemic origins of chaos is addressed in connection with this dual (orbit) incompressibility/(statistical) compressibility.

Through the introduction of a one-dimensional game of life, that combines a coupled map lattice and a cellular automaton, in a model of an artificial ecosystem, it is, then, shown that artificial life can be effectively combined with chaos theory, in order to support the development of a mathematical theory of risk.

Keywords: Chaos, artificial life, risk, risk science, risk mathematics, morphic incompressibility, coupled map lattices, cellular automata, game of life

Monday, June 21, 2010

Multifractal Financial Chaos in an Artificial Economy

Carlos Pedro Dos Santos Gonçalves 
UNIDE - ISCTE Business School - Lisbon University Institute

June 19, 2010

A model is proposed of a population of competing companies that are in a coevolutionary race and whose evolutionary performance is evaluated by a financial market, composed of value investors and of a breed of arbitrageurs that perform bargain arbitrage, trying to identify 'bargains' in the form of relative misspricings and, acting accordingly, buying assets with higher value at lower prices and selling assets with lower value at higher prices.

The model's equations are based on coupled networks of nonlinear maps, in this way, the model is focused on a coevolutionary process between companies and financial market. It is shown that, for a wide range of dynamical couplings and parameters, Multifractal Self-organized Criticality (MSOC) takes place, with the emergence of patterns of turbulence that closely resemble actual financial turbulence. The relation between arbitrage and multifractal financial turbulence is addressed.

Keywords: Multifractal chaos, financial turbulence, multifractal self-organized criticality, evolutionary arbitrage theory, financial markets’ efficiency, tail risk, evolutionary finance, microscopic financial modeling

Sunday, June 13, 2010

From Eternity to Eternity…

By: Maria Odete Madeira

Being the being of the being the same being that is of the becoming, as being that becomes, and, thus, alterity of itself, in itself, fundamental issues are placed, in what regards the relations of scale and the laws of structure that may be perceptioned, apprehended and formalized towards fixed human languages, which, due to that fixity, are incapable of capturing the fundamental (co)dynamics of simultaneous permanence and change in a same being, a (co)dynamics in which the constituent and constitutive antithetical movement determines the dynamics of scale that displace themselves in percolating multifractal webs, dependent upon the systemic processing (co)implicated in the locality/nonlocality of the respective systems.
Having, also, to consider, in those same issues, that the limit to the formalization, on the part of the human agents, is processed at the level of the individuated limit of the system itself, as self-referent noumenon, dependent upon its preformative and formative initial conditions, inaccessible to possible algorithmic schemes, assembled from the systemic effects, observed in ontological situational contexts and processes that spill over towards eidetics that transcend the mathematical reason, as human language that develops and uses disciplinary tools made available towards effects of calculation and measurement.
Thus, other mechanisms of cognitive processing will have to be introduced, such as, processes and arbitria of systemic synchronization, linked to autopoietic cognitive reasons and dynamics.

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

Quantum Game of Life I - Life and Death

By Carlos Pedro Gonçalves

The first version of the Quantum Life model is now published in Netlogo at the website:

This is a model of a Quantum Game of Life with path-dependent local quantum computation, exemplifying a Quantum Cellular Automaton.

Each patch can be either vacant of life or occupied by a living entity.

At each round of the game, a patch can be actualized into one of the two alternatives: (1) vacant of life or (2) occupied by a living entity, with a certain probability amplitude defined by the local patch quantum (game) state.

There are two alternative rules through which this game is played:

(1) - The clustering rule;

(2) - The spatially and temporally independent rule.

In the first rule, there is the production of a flocking (or herding) phenomenon, that is, the birth of living entities tends to occur through clustering, making emerge, in the quantum game, a quantum gravitic mechanism where the birth and death of living entities tends to lead to clusters of living entities.

In the second rule, the flocking (or herding) phenomenon is absent, the birth and death of living entities occurs with a fixed local probability for each patch, such that there is a fixed local probability for a vacant patch to become occupied by a living entity and a fixed local probability for a living entity, residing in a certain patch, to die.

See also the following video for another version of the model, with a simulation of the clustering rule:

Saturday, April 3, 2010

"Moral judgments can be altered ... by magnets"

By: Maria Odete Madeira

“Moral judgments can be altered ... by magnets (...) By disrupting brain activity in a particular region, neuroscientists can sway people’s views of moral situations.”

In the above quoted article, it is imperatively stated that “Moral judgments can be altered ... by magnets” and that “By disrupting brain activity in a particular region, neuroscientists can sway people’s views of moral situations.”.

Any living systems can be affected by electromagnetic fields. In what regards human organisms, of course that these are affected by electromagnetic fields in their cognition, of which the ethical judgment and the moral judgment are examples, this is not any Eureka moment.

Electromagnetic fields, a dog bite, an earthquake, hunger, the need to go to the toilet, common cold, a headache all of that affects an organism’s cognitive production, towards fundamental judgments. Anything that affects a body, affects the body’s cognitive functions. What's the surprise? Where’s the Eureka moment?

In an interconnected network a “disruption” of a local region of the network can have effects upon the whole system, but that does not legitimize a reduction of the system to that specific region, which is what is done in the research work that is reviewed in the article and reinforced by the review itself. This reduction is a scientific error.

What seems evident is that the people that have produced these experiments practice applied science, compromised by schemes of control, without considering the concepts and nature of the systems with which they are working.

Matters like the nature of human cognition, in proto-conscious and conscious aspects (reflection, reflexivity, reflexibility), towards judicative valorative judgments of survival, in situations of border with homeostatic processing, linked to mechanisms of risk evaluation for situational systemic self-references of rhythmic enactive intentionality, in abstract and concrete planes, articulated with the respective languages, none of this was considered in the research, nor in the article that reviewed it.

Other fundamental matters, linked to the nature of human cognition, such as the perceptive and affective porosity and the arbitriu, implicated in the systems of exchanges of matter, energy and information between an organism and the situational living web in which it is immersed, towards systemic effects of locality and nonlocality that are synthesized in any cognitive judgment, must be considered in any study that addresses human cognitive judgment, of which a moral judgment is an example. No human judgment can be reduced to black boxed input-output systems.

Conclusive statements like: “Moral judgments can be altered ... by magnets”, “By disrupting brain activity in a particular region, neuroscientists can sway people’s views of moral situations(...)” and “(...) You think of morality as being a really high-level behavior (...) To be able to apply (a magnetic field) to a specific brain region and change people’s moral judgments is really astonishing (...)”, all of these statements are scientific nonsense, “intellectual impostures” of an applied science that intermixes a bad Cartesianism with a bad Behaviorism, contaminated by an illusion of control.

Friday, March 19, 2010

on the strange loop...

By: Maria Odete Madeira
A strange loop is a feedback circle, linked to the systemic identity, as self-computable rotative dispositional dynamics, in which the system folds upon itself, without leaving itself, maintaining the constituent and constitutive systemic integrity.
A strange loop is rotatively projective. The projective rotativity is assumed, in the notion of systemic identity, at the level of the ontological dynamics of projectivity, intrinsic to the systems, signalized at the level of the effectivenesses that act upon the effects, and are postulated at the level of the causes, as formative capabilities that act upon the preservation of the integrity of the systems in survival interfaces.

Monday, March 15, 2010

On Parson’s Quasi-Concrete Objects

By: Maria Odete Madeira

Abstract existents are object/figures of thought and of reason, they may have, or not, simultaneously, correlationable concrete existence/examples.

In relation to the concrete/abstract the term “quasi” does not apply.

The term “quasi” can be applied to the relation between the potency/act, in which, in the potency, the intensity towards the act can generate, in the propension/tendency, displaced in the horizon of possibility, a situation or process of latent state, in which, in epistemological and ontological terms, the usage of the term “quasi-concrete” could be adequate.

But, regarding abstract objects, the term “quasi-concrete” is not applicable.

Tuesday, March 9, 2010

On the logos of the things...

By: Maria Odete Madeira

The things have to be “listened” to, perceptioned, interpreted and understood in their rotative topoi. We have to see what is in the things and not what we want or wish to think about them.

The sun has its logos, the stars, and the planets, an ant, a stone, a spider... each has its own logos that explains it, as such, and that logos does not depend upon us human observers... it is its logos and its truth.

If we interest ourselves, if we want to know what things are, we have to make an effort to synchronize our rotative rhythms with the rotative rhythms of the things that we want to know, to make emerge a gravitic point of systemic synchronization in order to listen to them... perceive them... understand them.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

On Truth...

By: Maria Odete Madeira

(Worked from Heidegger’s thinking)

If the discourse speaks the truth, which as a word («truth») that it is, it states, about the discourse, that it is true, because it speaks the truth. Truth?

What is, thus, understood by «truth»? This word «truth», elevated (?) and spent and worn out, that designates that which makes true something that is true, but what is «the true»?

It is said of something, that it is true if that something has an effective (actual) reality, thus, it could be said of the things that are true, that they are effective (in act), which leads one to state that the contrary of the true, that is, the false would be a non effective (in act) reality, however, it is the case that the things that are false, are also effective (actual), as realities of which it is said that are not true. Being effective (actual), therefore, characterizes both the true and the false (Plato, Parricide).

But if both (true and false) are effective, what can distinguish the true from the false? The character of authenticity? The true will be the authentic and the false the inauthentic. This authentic resends towards something anticipated and constantly considered as authentic of a reality and that is in conformity with that same reality.

Thus, of a statement, it is said to be true when that which it states is in conformity with the thing that is stated in it, and about which the statement itself is. What is in conformity is what agrees, then, being true and truth mean (in the statement) the agreement of something with what was previously thought about it and the conformity of the thing with that which is intended in the statement.

There is, thus, a double character in the concordance such that the truth is the resembling of the thing to the knowledge (veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus) and, also, such that the truth is the resembling of the knowledge to the thing (veritas est adaequatio intellectus ad rem). The truth, thus conceived, presupposes the truth of the thing in the statement and always means a “to conform to”…, concordance, compatibilized order, synchronized order… relations, proportions… systems…

Saturday, February 27, 2010

Unus – Unitas – Religare: Autonomy

By: Maria Odete Madeira

Unus is the Latin term for unique, indivisible, irrepeatable. It is a name to designate an individuated form, any form,that, as such, possesses an identity that is in conformity with an idea (eidos) of unity, from the Latin unitas/atis, defined as a systemically available property to be exemplified by any identity, be that identity: ente, entity, process, situation, relation, or simply thing (res).

The unity is, in itself, described by its internal cohesion, consistency and coherence. All that is unus, or unique, participates from, or has unity, because to have unity is to be unique, irrepeatable. Each ente, or individuated thing (res) is unus, and, thus, unique: ens et unum convertuntur; because each thing, or ente, possesses an identity that relinks (religare) it and determines it in itself and by itself, in what is its autonomy: reference to itself, as rotative self-position of itself.

Thursday, February 25, 2010

... the Being is event... the logos-there...

By: Maria Odete Madeira

Dasein was the term that Wolff used in order to translate the Latin term exsistentia, from the verb exsistere, that etymologically denotes origin. In Heidegger, the notion of existence, as dasein, lost the theoretical sense, present in Husserl, as object of thought.

For Heidegger, there was no existence outside the existing things and all existing things (ek-sistence) were rooted in the physis as beings, projectively as beings-towards- death, coexisting in a complex system of references to a future existentially anticipated.

For Heidegger, each entity is one of the modes of the Being, and, each entity, is also its difference, each entity is the being-there (Dasein) referring to itself (ek-sistence) .

The truth of the Being (aletheia) belongs to the Being itself..., to be physis is aletheia. The Being gives itself (es gibt) as Being and Time and, thus, as something that has given itself, the Being is event (Ereignis), the logos-there...

Wednesday, February 24, 2010


By: Maria Odete Madeira

The iteration of the low weight thinker emerges, more and more, in the form of a social mechanism, invested of memetic effectiveness towards effects of reduction of the human thinking to a replicator without ability and will to question and, because of that, the low weight thinker easily, willingly, eagerly alienates his/her/(its?) autonomy in contra-adaptive eidetics, polarized by marketed effectivenesses, that presuppose the anthropophagic production of fast food for thought, in an organically self-sustained cycle.

Words become poster signs, or post it signs, that, stripped away from their meaning, become useful to use and recycle, feeding a schizophrenic market.

If one can argue, and reason, and question, one becomes dangerous.

The death of Socrates, however, is repeated today, not only for political reasons, by a power hungry elite, but by the low (weight) thinker, that wishes to play the senseless word game, without having to perform the great effort of thinking, and questioning, and learning. The repetition of facts is the death of questioning and the decay of reflexive arbitriu.

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

On Consciousness: "suneidos"..., "conscientia"…

By: Maria Odete Madeira

There is no neurobiological evidence for such a thing as a substantialized and localized consciousness, in the human organisms, the evidence is that there are permanent states of consciousness, produced by the neurobiological cerebral work, the causality of which is to produce images from electrochemical neural patterns connected to modifications that occur in the organism, when it interacts with the external environment. This neurobiological work involves the whole organism, in terms of the relation, strategically situational and processual, always precarious and variable, that the organism maintains with itself and with the environment.

The terms reflection, reflexivity and reflexibility allow one to understand the neurobiological process involved in the acts of consciousness.

All systems have their reflexivity and reflexibility mechanisms, and some of these evidentiate adaptive behaviors more successful than our own. One can, with plausibility and reasonableness, state that the cosmos, as a system, it too, has its own mechanism or mechanisms of reflexivity and reflexibility, necessary to its integrity.

Consciousness, as a concept, synthesizes the primitive radicular sense, genetically incorporated in the Latin notion of “conscientia”, from the Greek term “suneidos” which means “concomitant knowledge”, that is: a multiplicity of knowings can be lived and experienced internally, in a single act of knowledge, in each present moment, and, in this way: “to be aware of” (“ser ou estar consciente de”) always involves intentional and relational cognitive dynamics that are rotatively and projectively situational and processual.

Saturday, February 20, 2010

"The transhumanist business"...

On the article: placed on twitter by

The comment is taken from the comments placed on twitter by under the hashtag #identity

...The identity of the organism does not depend upon the organism’s memories. Even if an organism “loses” its memories that organism is still an irreducible referent as presence and existence in the world.

About the download of memories… it is important to remember that a memory incorporates, always, cognitive syntheses in which protoconscious and conscious processes intervene.

Also, any conscious process is constituted, in its formative basis, by emotions and feelings. The emulation of a brain, postulated by the transhumanist business, does not capture the nature of human cognition. The brain is not the key, but the whole system.

Transhumanism is a badly thought out word… human transcendence does not mean a change of nature, it means to go beyond the human limits without the negation of the human, in the human, still human.

Much more can be said about the conceptual mistakes of transhumanist thinkers and “futurologists”. Concepts are being used as catchphrases for selling technological products.

Thursday, February 11, 2010

Vox mundi: vitalis mundi, vitalis reticulis, sanis mundi…

By: Maria Odete Madeira

The perception and respective systemic computation of the enactive emergence of a rhythmic ontology of citizenship in systems of interconnected networks, in what regards the rights and duties that incorporate the autonomous exercise of each citizen, in nonlocal contexts of power, in which the local critical self-exclusion, linked to the circulation and processing of local/global information/knowledge, may lead to the loss of autonomy towards general contexts of survival, legitimates some critical reflection about the possible phenotypic effects with formative consequences in the levels of perception of the systemic risk towards effects of survival and dignity, in which the enactive alienation may potentiate the development of behaviors of weak adaptive, or even counter-adaptive, adhesion, with homeostatic systemic consequences at the levels of the maintenance of the local/global systemic integrity.

Vox mundi…, it is about thinking the notion itself of democracy in contexts of systemic nonlocality , in which the notion of individual, or human subject, is cognitively (co)computed with the notion of citizen/citizenship, towards effects of immediate, or day-to-day, survival, in which an individual ontology of alienated survival may displace counter-adaptive enactive effects that are undesirable to the “current interconnected democratic game”.

Vitalis mundi, vitalis reticulis, sanis mundi…, it is about thinking the imperative of sovereignty, from ethical/cognitive syntheses, processed from intersystemic local/global dynamics, related to dignities, vital to the interconnected human survival.

Monday, February 1, 2010

On perception...

By: Maria Odete Madeira

The perceptive systemic dynamics of information/knowledge processing depend, directly, upon agile local cognitive systemic weavings, supported by interconnected cooperative systemic networks, and, indirectly, depend upon local mechanisms, connected to nonlocal cognitive interfaces, in which intervene cognitive dynamics of abstraction, supported by local systemic dynamics of reflection, reflexivity and reflexibility.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Identity, Reflexivity, Reflexibility and Projectivity

By: Maria Odete Madeira

The notion of identity, with origin in the Latin identitas/atis, has the same meaning as mesmidade (Portuguese), from the Latin metipse/metipsimum, with sameness as the corresponding word in English.

The identity, or mesmidade (sameness), signalizes the permanence of the same (mesmo), in itself, in face of itself (self-reference), by itself, from a dynamics of systemic reciprocity, self-determined by a value of equality, displaced by the intrinsic rotative dynamics of reflexive monadological coincidence of each existent/system.

The identity, or mesmidade (sameness), is determined by the dispositional/intentional/reflexive character of each existent, as inalienable self-reference, that is: the permanent rotative coincidence that any individuated structure has with itself and that attributes to it an irreducible structural autonomy.

The systemic rotativity, determined by the ontology of the identity, is linked and dependent upon the mechanisms of projectivity, signalized in the systems, at the level of the effectivenesses that act in the effects, and postulated at the level of the causes, as formative capabilities that act in the preservation of the integrity of the systems in interface of survival.

The notion of projectivity, worked upon in abstract languages towards the application to the concrete systemic activity, was ontologically synthesized from a semiotic network of meanings with Latin root in:

- projectio, onis, with the meaning of action of extending;

- projecto, as, are, with the meaning of to expose and, also, of to launch forward;

- projectus, a, um, with the meaning of extension;

- projicio, is, ere, jeci, jectum, with the meaning of to expose, exposition.

The projectivity is systemically inseparable from the systemic dynamics of reflection, reflexivity and reflexibility.

Reflection, from the Latin reflectere, has the meaning of (re)turning back, and regards the projective rotative systemic activity of the agents, of any agents, be those agents: particle, field, atom, molecule, cell, animal, person, or thing, ente or entity. That activity being linked to the respective strategies and effectivenesses, entangled in the computation and exchanges of matter, energy and information, included in the computation/production of deliberative judicative valorative syntheses.

Reflexivity, from the Latin reflexu, means folded onto itself, and it is a dispositional systemic rotative capability that allows the agents and/or the systems the direct valorative cognitive processing of themselves, from their causes, or originating formative reasons (ratio, proportio) to and towards which the system intentionally directs itself with the objective of producing (re)evaluative deliberative judicative valorative syntheses.

Reflexibility is an intrinsic dispositional systemic property, common to all the things, to all the systems, as existing things and, because of that, rotatively present in their own light, in themselves, in face of themselves (self-reference) and by themselves.

The reflexibility is in the systems and is approachable in the systems, and regards the visibility or perception of these same systems, as an own mode of being, a character, while things, beings or entities that show themselves, make their apparition (aparecem), remain (permanecem) and seem (parecem), in their own visibility.

Friday, January 15, 2010

The "lingua" of a people...

By: Maria Odete Madeira

The lingua (Latin, Portuguese) of a people, of each people, is a structurating active autonomous system of articulated and interrelated signs that transcends the individual acts of the speech, locating itself in the fundament of the identity of that people, of each people, in what regards its thinking, feelings, beliefs, cognition, autonomy, arbitriu (Latin),…,… .

Thursday, January 7, 2010

Time Aion...

By. Maria Odete Madeira
Aion is the Greek term for that which is without end in the Time, aidios (Aristotle, Meta., 1072b). Outside the Greek philosophical contexts, the term Aion, incorporated in the common daily language, meant period of life.
Melissus made an approximation of the term Aion to the term Apeiron (without limit), primordial substance in Anaximander. In a later development, Plotinus (Enn., III,7,4) attributed to Aion the meaning of mode of existence of the Being.
That which is without end in the Time (Khronos) was systemically expanded and synthesized in a notion of Time Aion.

Sunday, January 3, 2010

(re)tension and the (pro)tension: proportion

By: Maria Odete Madeira

“Quidquid recipitur ad modum recipientis recipitur”

Medieval adage that synthesizes an eidos of proportion: whatever is received, is received according to the mode of receiving of the receiver.

The (re)tension and the (pro)tension (from the Latin tensio) can consistently be synthesized, in an abstract language, as primitive notions for the gathering and utilization of information, in the assumption that the patterns that configure the systems incorporate, in their formative nature, mechanisms of potential rotative projective resonance, linked to the reflexibility of the systems, with appetence and capability to place in relation that which, in the systems, is the act made proportionately available as presence to the potency (semper quod ens) and that, because of that, determines it.

In the retension: the game, the rules, the names, the verbs, the signs, the meanings, the desires, the will, the rhythms, the myths, the rites, the potency…; in the protension: the act, the fact, the event, the fatum…